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Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth

Alcohol Advertising and Youth

Research clearly indicates that, in addition to parents and peers, alcohol advertising and marketing have a significant impact on youth decisions to drink.

"While many factors may influence an underage person's drinking decisions, including among other things parents, peers and the media, there is reason to believe that advertising also plays a role." (Federal Trade Commission, Self-Regulation in the Alcohol Industry, 1999)1

Parents and peers have a large impact on youth decisions to drink. However, research clearly indicates that alcohol advertising and marketing also have a significant effect by influencing youth and adult expectations and attitudes, and helping to create an environment that promotes underage drinking.

Evidence from long-term studies

Evidence from studies of the effects of reductions in alcohol advertising

Evidence of how alcohol advertising attracts and influences young people

What teens and others think about alcohol advertising and youth

How much alcohol advertising reaches youth

Updated April 2007


Notes

  1. Federal Trade Commission, Self-Regulation in the Alcohol Industry: A Review of Industry Efforts to Avoid Promoting Alcohol to Underage Consumers (Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission, 1999), 4.
  2. L.B. Snyder, F.F. Milici, M. Slater, H. Sun, and Y. Strizhakova, "Effects of Alcohol Advertising Exposure on Drinking Among Youth," Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 160 (2006): 18-24.
  3. A.W. Stacy, J.B. Zogg, J.B. Unger, and C.W. Dent, "Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use," American Journal of Health Behavior 28, no. 6 (2004): 498-509.
  4. P.L. Ellickson, R.L.Collins, K.Hambarsoomians, and D.R. McCaffrey, "Does Alcohol Advertising Promote Adolescent Drinking? Results From a Longitudinal Assessment," Addiction 100 (2005): 235-46.
  5. A. McClure, S. Dal Cin, J. Gibson, J. D. Sargent, "Ownership of Alcohol-Branded Merchandise and Initiation of Teen Drinking," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30 (2006): 277-283.
  6. J. D. Sargent, T. A. Wills, M. Stoolmiller, J. Gibson, and F. X. Gibbons, "Alcohol Use in Motion Pictures and Its Relation with Early-Onset Teen Drinking," Journal of Studies on Alcohol 67 (2006): 54-65.
  7. H. Saffer and D. Dave, "Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents," Health Economics 15 (2006): 617-637.
  8. W. Hollingworth, B. E. Ebel, et al., "Prevention of Deaths From Harmful Drinking in the United States: The Potential Effects of Tax Increases and Advertising Bans on Young Drinkers," Journal of Studies on Alcohol 67 (2006): 300-308.
  9. D. Chisholm, J. Rehm, et al., "Reducing the global burden of hazardous alcohol use: a comparative cost-effectiveness analysis," Journal of Studies on Alcohol 65(2004): 782-793.
  10. M.J. Chen, J.W. Grube, M. Bersamin, E. Waiters, and D.B. Keefe, "Alcohol Advertising: What Makes It Attractive to Youth?," Journal of Health Communication 10 (2005): 553-565.
  11. C. Pechmann, L. Levine, et al., "Impulsive and self-conscious: Adolescents' vulnerability to advertising and promotion," Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 24(2005): 202-221.
  12. E.W. Austin and C. Knaus, "Predicting the Potential for Risky Behavior Among Those ?Too Young? to Drink as a Result of Appealing Advertising," Journal of Health Communications 5(2000): 13-27.
  13. E.W. Austin, B. E. Pinkleton, et al., "The Role of Interpretation Processes and Parental Discussion in the Media's Effects on Adolescents' Use of Alcohol," Pediatrics 105(2000): 343-349.
  14. K. Fleming, E. Thorson, et al., "Alcohol Advertising Exposure and Perceptions: Links with Alcohol Expectancies and Intentions to Drink or Drinking in Underaged Youth and Young Adults," Journal of Health Communication 9(2004): 3-29.
  15. B. Horovitz, M. Wells, "Ads for adult vices big hit with teens," USA Today (31 January 1997): News 1A.
  16. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Executive Summary of Findings of Research Study of the Public Opinion Concerning Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages (Washington, DC: BATF, 1988), 14, cited in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Youth and Alcohol: Controlling Alcohol Advertising that Appeals to Youth(Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, October 1991), 2.
  17. Century Council, "Poll shows many people believe industry encourages teen drinking," Alcohol Issues Insights 8 no. 8 (3 August 1991).
  18. Cited in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Youth and Alcohol: Controlling Alcohol Advertising that Appeals to Youth (1991), 2.
  19. Nielsen Adviews.
  20. Federal Trade Commission, Self-Regulation in the Alcohol Industry, Appendix B: Alcohol Advertising Expenditures, iii.
  21. Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Still Growing After All These Years: Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television, 2001?2005 (Washington, D.C., 2006).
  22. Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising in Magazines, 2001 to 2004: Good News, Bad News (Washington, D.C., 2006).
  23. D. H. Jernigan, J. Ostroff, et al., "Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Radio --- United States, June--August 2004," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55(2006): 937-940.
  24. Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Alcohol Industry "Responsibility" Advertising on Television," (Washington, D.C., 2005).
  25. Unpublished analysis using TNS Media Intelligence and Nielsen Media Research, 2005.
  26. C.F. Garfield, P.J. Chung, P.J. Rathouz, "Alcohol Advertising in Magazines and Youth Readership," The Journal of the American Medical Association 289, no. 18 (May 14, 2003): 2424-2429.