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Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth

Alcohol and Violence

Studies have repeatedly found higher alcohol outlet density is associated with higher levels of violence.




Updated December 2015

Alcohol and Violence Fact Sheet (printer-friendly version)


1. Kearns, M. C., Reidy, D. E., & Valle, L. A. (2015). The Role of Alcohol Policies in Preventing Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of the Literature.  The Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76(1):21-30.

2. Parker R. N., Williams K. R., McCaffree K. J., Acensio, E. K., Browne, A., Strom, K. J., and Barrick, K. (2011). Alcohol Availability and Youth Homicide in the 91 Largest US Cities, 1984-2006. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30(5):505-14.

3. Grubesic, T. H.& Pridemore, W. A. (2011). Alcohol Outlets and Clusters of Violence. International Journal of Health Geographics, 10:30.  Accessed November 7, 2015 at:

4. Grubesic, T. H., Pridemore, W. A., Williams, D. A., & Philip-Tabb, L. (2013). Alcohol Outlet Density and Violence: The Role of Risky Retailers and Alcohol-Related Expenditures. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 48(5):613-619.

5. White, G. F., Gainey, R. R., & Triplett, R. A. (2015). Alcohol Outlets and Neighborhood Crime: A Longitudinal Analysis. Crime & Delinquency, 61(6):851-872.

6. Snowden, A. J. & Pridemore, W. A. (2013). Alcohol and Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Alcohol Outlet Density, Outlet Type, and Assault. Journal of Drug Issues, 43(3):357-373.

7. Giesbrecht, N., Huguet, N., Ogden, L., Kaplan, M. S., McFarland, B. H., Caetano, R., Conner, K. R., & Nolte, K. B.  (2015). Acute Alcohol Use among Suicide Decedents in 14 US States: Impacts of Off-premise and On-premise Alcohol Outlet Density. Addiction, 110(2):300-307.

8. Jennings JM, Milam AJ, Greiner A, Furr-Holden CD, Curriero FC, Thornton RJ. Neighborhood alcohol outlets and the association with violent crime in one Mid-Atlantic city: The implications for zoning policy. Journal of Urban Health. 2014;91:62-71.

9. Schofield, T.P. & Denson, T.F. (2013). Alcohol Outlet Business Hours and Violent Crime in New York State.  Alcohol and Alcoholism, 48(3):363-369.  Accessed November 22, 2015 at:

10. Parker, R. N., McCaffree, K. J., & Skiles, D. (2011). The Impact of Retail Practices on Violence: The Case of Single Serve Alcohol Beverage Containers.  Drug and Alcohol Review, 30:496–504.

11. Parker, R. N., McCaffree, K. J., Alaniz, M. L., & Cartmill, R. J. Sexual Violence, Alcohol, and Advertising. In: Parker R, McCaffree K, editors. Alcohol and Violence: The Nature of the Relationship and the Promise of Prevention. Lexington Books; 2013. 13-30.

12. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Alcohol and Public Health: Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) Application, 2013. Accessed November 8, 2015 at:

13. Darke, S. (2010). The Toxicology of Homicide Offenders and Victims: A review. Drug and Alcohol Review, 29(2):202-215.

14. Kuhns, J. B., Exum, M. L., Clodfelter, T. A., & Bottia, M. C. (2014). The Prevalence of Alcohol-Involved Homicide Offending: A Meta-Analytic Review. Homicide Studies, 18(3):251-270.

15. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010). Alcohol and Crime: Data from 2002 to 2008.  Accessed November 8, 2015 at:

16. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010). Alcohol and Crime: Data from 2002 to 2008.  Accessed November 8, 2015 at:

17. Zinzow, H.M. & Thompson, M. (2015). Factors Associated with Use of Verbally Coercive, Incapacitated, and Forcible Sexual Assault Tactics in a Longitudinal Study of College Men. Aggressive Behavior, 41:34-43.

18. Abbey A & Jacques-Tiura AJ. (2011). Sexual assault perpetrators’ tactics: Associations with their personal characteristics and aspects of the incident. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26:2866–2889.  Accessed November 21, 2015 at:

19. Davis, K.C., Kiekel, P.A., Schraufnagel, T.J., Norris, J., George, W.H., & Kajumulo, K.F. (2012). Men’s Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(14):2790–2806.

20. Temple, J. R., Shorey, R. C., Fite, P., Stuart, G. L., & Le, V. D. (2013). Substance Use as a Longitudinal Predictor of the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(4):596-606. Accessed November 7, 2015 at:

21. Rothman, E.F., Reyes, L.M., Johnson, R.M. & LaValley M. (2011). Does the Alcohol Make Them Do It? Dating Violence Perpetration and Drinking Among Youth. Epidemiologic Reviews, 34:103-119.  Accessed November 22, 2015 at:

22. Devries, K. M., Child, J. C., Bacchus, L. J., Mak, J., Falder, G., Graham, K., Watts, C., & Heise, L. (2013). Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Alcohol Consumption in Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Addiction, 109(3):379–391.

23. Graham, K., Bernards, S., Wilsnack, S. C., & Gmel, G. (2011). Alcohol May Not Cause Partner Violence but It Seems to Make It Worse: A Cross National Comparison of the Relationship Between Alcohol and Severity of Partner Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(8):1503–1523.  Accessed November 7, 2015 at:

24. Calculated from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey public use dataset available at:

25. Parker, R., McCaffree, K., Callannan, V., & Saltz, R. Alcohol and the Risk of Violent Victimization and Injury. In: Parker R, McCaffree K, editors. Alcohol and Violence: The Nature of the Relationship and the Promise of Prevention. Lexington Books; 2013. 13-30.

26. Darvishi, N., Farhadi, M., Haghtalab, T., & Poorolajal, J. (2015). Alcohol-Related Risk of Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempt, and Completed Suicide: A Meta-Analysis.  PLOS One, 10(5):e0126870. Accessed November 6, 2015 at:

27. Carpenter, C. (2004). Heavy Alcohol Use and Youth Suicide: Evidence from Tougher Drunk Driving Laws. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23(4):831-842.

28. Anda, R. F., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D., Edwards, V. J., Dube, S. R., & Williamson, D. F. (2002). Adverse Childhood Experiences, Alcoholic Parents, and Later Risk of Alcoholism and Depression.  Psychiatric Services, 53:1001-1009. Accessed November 7, 2015 at: