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Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth

Women, Girls, and Alcohol








Updated September 2016

Women, Girls and Alcohol (printer-friendly version)


1 Calculated using 2015 YRBS data available at:

2 Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E., and Miech, R.A. (2014). Demographic Subgroup Tends among Adolescents in The Use of Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975–2013 (Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 81). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.  Accessed November 6, 201 at:

3 White, A., Castle, I. J., Chen, C. M., Shirley, M., Roach, D., and Hingson, R. (2015). Converging Patterns of Alcohol Use and Related Outcomes among Females and Males in the United States, 2002 to 2012. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 39(9):1712-1726.

4 Grenard, J. L., Dent, C.W., and Stacy, A. W. (2013). Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems. Pediatrics, 131(2):e369–e379. Accessed November 9, 2015 at:

5 Siegel, M., Ayers, A. J., DeJong, W., Naimi, T. S., and Jernigan, D. H. (2015). Differences in Alcohol Brand Consumption among Underage Youth by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity – United States, 2012.  Journal of Substance Use, 20(6):430–438.

6 McClure, A. C., Dai Cin, S., Gibson, J. and Sargent, J.D. (2006). Ownership of Alcohol-Branded Merchandise and Initiation of Teen Drinking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(4):277-283.

7 Ross CS, Ostroff J, Siegel MB, DeJong W, Naimi TS, Jernigan DH. Youth Alcohol Brand Consumption and Exposure to Brand Advertising in Magazines. J Stud. Alcohol Drugs. 2014;75(4):615-622.

8 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1999). Are Women More Vulnerable to Alcohol's Effects? Alcohol Alert, 46.  Available at:

9 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. (2000) 10th Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health, 254.  Available at:

10 One standard drink is equivalent to 10-12 g of pure ethanol. Scoccianti, C., Lauby-Secretan, B., Bello, P. Y., Chajes, V., and Romieu, I. (2014). Female Breast Cancer and Alcohol Consumption: A Review of the Literature. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 46(3 Suppl 1):S16–S25.  Accessed November 9, 2015 at:

11 Brooks, P. J. and Zakhari, S. (2013). Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Breast Cancer in Women: From Epidemiology to Mechanisms and Interventions. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(1):23–30. Accessed November 9, 2015 at:

12 Fifteen percent of breast cancer deaths are attributable to alcohol consumption.  Nelson, D. E., Jarman, D. W., Rehm, J., Greenfield, T. K., Rey, G., Kerr, W. C., Miller, P., Shield, K. D., Ye, Y., and  Naimi, T. S. (2013). Alcohol-Attributable Cancer Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 103(4):641–648.  Accessed November 11, 2015 at:

13 There are 40,890 estimated breast cancer deaths in the United States in 2016. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2016.  Available at:

14 Schwartz, J. and Daravan, A. (2013). Enforcement Following 0.08% BAC Law Change: Sex-Specific Consequences of Changing Arrest Practices? Addictive Behaviors, 38(10):2506-2512. 

15 FBI Uniform Crime Report. Driving under the influence from Table 33 FBI Crime in the US 1998 -2007 Trends by sex.  Accessed April 24, 2016 at:

16 Williams, J. F., Smith, V. C., and the Committee on Substance Abuse. (2015). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, 136(5):e1395-e1406. Accessed November 10, 2015 at:

17 May, P. A., Baete, A., Russo, J., Elliott, A. J., Blankenship, J., Kalberg, W. O., Buckley, D., Brooks, M., Hasken, J. Abdul-Rahman, O., Adam, M. P., Robinson, L. K., Manning, M., and Hoyme, H. E.  (2014). Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, 134:855–66.  Accessed November 10, 2015 at:

18 Tan, C. H., Denny, C. H., Cheal, N. E., Sniezek, J. E., and Kanny, D. (2015) Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age — United States, 2011–2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64(37):1042-1046.  Accessed November 10, 2015 at:

19 De Genna, N. M., Larkby, C., and Cornelius, M. D. (2007). Early and Adverse Experiences with Sex and Alcohol are Associated with Adolescent Drinking Before and During Pregnancy. Addictive Behaviors, 32(12):2799-2810.  Available at:

20 Howard, D. E., Griffin, M. A., Boekeloo, B. O. (2008). Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault among University Students. Adolescence, 43(172):733-50.

21 US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. (2014). Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization among College-Age Females, 1995–2013.  Accessed November 7, 2015 at:

22 Livingston, J. A., Testa, M., Windle, M., and Bay-Cheng L. Y. (2015). Sexual Risk at First Coitus: Does Alcohol Make a Difference? Journal of Adolescence, 43:148–158.

23 Sexual assault and rape includes threatened, attempted, and completed rape and sexual assault. Sinozich, S. Langton, L. (2014). Rape and Sexual Assault among College-Age Females 1995-2013. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 248471.  Accessed April 24, 2016 at: